Internet Media as Component of Information and Communication Environment in Electoral Process: Features and Tools

Vitaly V. Tomin 1 * , Natalia E. Erofeeva 2, Tatiana V. Borzova 3, Tatyana B. Lisitzina 4, Vladimir E. Rubanik 5, Hibi K. Aliyev 6, Pari G. Shuaipova 7
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1 Department of Foreign Languages, Orenburg State University, Orenburg, RUSSIA
2 Orsk Humanitarian-Technological Institute (Branch), Orenburg State University, Orsk, RUSSIA
3 Department of Psychology, Pacific National University, Khabarovsk, RUSSIA
4 Department of Social and Cultural Activities and Tourism, Gzhel State University, Ramensky District, RUSSIA
5 Department of Legal Regulation of Economic Activity, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, RUSSIA
6 Department of Criminal Procedure Law, North Caucasian Institute (Branch), All-Russian State University of Justice (RPA of the Ministry of Justice or Russia), Makhachkala, RUSSIA
7 Department of Civil Law, Rostov Institute (Branch), All-Russian State University of Justice (RPA of the Ministry of Justice or Russia), Rostov on Don, RUSSIA
* Corresponding Author
Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, Volume 10, Issue 3, Article No: e202011. https://doi.org/10.29333/ojcmt/7932
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ABSTRACT

The relevance of this article lies in the need to study Internet media in the information and communication environment, since new media technologies have entered the arena of election communication, the role of which is increasing both in the campaign process and in the election campaign as a whole. The purpose of the study is to determine the features of new media use in election campaigns in Russia. Research methods: as a research method, we used the method of individual in-depth interview, which allows us to identify and characterize the main methods of using new media technologies in election communication. Research results: the article shows the main ways and methods of using new media in election campaigns. The reasons and prerequisites for the use of new media technologies for the implementation of the electoral process are highlighted. The factors that determine the low level of new media use in the election campaign are determined. The effectiveness of new media functions in the electoral process is shown. The main prospects of development in the use of new media in election campaigns are considered. The novelty and originality of the study lies in the fact that the features of Internet media use in the electoral process are studied. For the first time, we the properties that allow new media technologies to use them in a completely different aspect than traditional media are identified: interactivity, multimedia content, efficiency in publishing, low cost and high speed of distribution of information content, as well as its availability and the ability to provide targeted information. It is determined that due to the above-mentioned properties of new media in political communication the following goals are achieved: presentation of political projects, the impact of the highlighted agenda on certain segments of the population, disseminating information about the activities of a candidate or party, collecting funds for the campaign, as well as the interaction with means of mass communication. For the first time, the functions of Internet media in the electoral process are highlighted, which are relevant: information-based, public opinion formation, mobilization, advertising, collection of monetary donations, and control over the conduct of election campaigns. It is shown that for Pro-government campaigns, the main functions of Internet media in the electoral process are information-based, formation of public opinion and image of the candidate, legitimization of the election process in the mass media, and the function of an additional source of information. For non-system opposition, the main functions of Internet media in the electoral process are information-based, communication, mobilization (which are especially manifested in the organization of volunteers’ work), the formation of the candidate’s image, and the collection of monetary donations. It is determined that the use of new media technologies by Pro-government campaigns differs significantly from opposition campaigns. It is shown that Pro-government candidates actively use traditional methods of interaction with voters: outdoor advertising, print media, local and Federal TV channels, not letting opposition candidates into it. It is determined that the technologies used by the headquarters of candidates from the government are less diverse and do not change over time. Interaction tools depend on the candidate and local electoral specifics. It is revealed that communication on media platforms between opposition supporters is more emotional, sincere, and fanatical. These people are distinguished by having a strong internal position and committed attitude to the policy of a representative of the non-system opposition. It is determined that the media services of the headquarters of Pro-government candidates mainly provide information presence of the candidate, explanatory rhetoric and legitimization of the election process on the media platforms. For the first time, it is revealed that even on new media platforms, Pro-government campaigns for the most part continue to use the vertical model of communication, placing the main emphasis on administrative resources. It is shown that the role of new media will grow more and more.
Practical significance: the data Obtained in this work can be used in social psychology, pedagogy, age psychology, sociology, as well as for further theoretical development of this issue.

CITATION

Tomin, V. V., Erofeeva, N. E., Borzova, T. V., Lisitzina, T. B., Rubanik, V. E., Aliyev, H. K., & Shuaipova, P. G. (2020). Internet Media as Component of Information and Communication Environment in Electoral Process: Features and Tools. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 10(3), e202011. https://doi.org/10.29333/ojcmt/7932

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