Cybersecurity awareness factors among adolescents in Jordan: Mediation effect of cyber scale and personal factors

Anas Mohammad Ramadan AlSobeh 1 2 3 * , Iyad AlAzzam 1, Amani Mohammad Jomah Shatnawi 1, Iman Khasawneh 1
More Detail
1 Department of Information Systems, Faculty of Information Technology and Computer Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid, JORDAN
2 College of Information Technology, Kingdom University, Riffa, BAHRAIN
3 School of Computing, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, USA
* Corresponding Author
Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, Volume 13, Issue 2, Article No: e202312.
OPEN ACCESS   1541 Views   1293 Downloads   Published online: 07 Feb 2023
Download Full Text (PDF)


Cybersecurity for Jordanians’ adolescents/teens has become a complicated phenomenon representing complex socio-technical concerns for the personalities of adolescents in Jordanian society. Recent cyberattacks have had a significant impact on teens in Jordan, both personally and in terms of their quality of life. As such, it is important to develop strategies to increase cybersecurity awareness among teens in Jordan. This research was conducted in both planned and random areas in Jordan, with the aim of understanding the differences in risk-aware cultures and teens’ opinions and activities after introducing cybersecurity awareness in cyberspace. The study was based on 400 responses, and numerous statistical analyses were applied to the responses from each area, including the validity and reliability test, feasibility test of a variable, correlation test, and carried out using SPSS. Moreover, multiple coefficients of determination, hypothesis testing and partial statistical tests were carried out. The research hypotheses indicate that there is a mediation effect of the cyber scale and personal factors (planned/random) with a 76% acceptance rate. This suggests that understanding the significant association between the cyber scale and the quality-of-life scale is important, and that effective cyber-risk management is critical to realizing the importance of cybersecurity awareness. As such, it is recommended that national cybersecurity programs be launched in all sectors in Jordan. Overall, this research highlights the importance of increasing cybersecurity awareness among teens in Jordan. It is essential that teens are educated on the risks associated with cyberattacks, and that effective strategies are developed to protect them from such attacks. By doing so, teens in Jordan can be better equipped to protect themselves and their society from the dangers of cyberattacks.


AlSobeh, A. M. R., AlAzzam, I., Shatnawi, A. M. J., & Khasawneh, I. (2023). Cybersecurity awareness factors among adolescents in Jordan: Mediation effect of cyber scale and personal factors. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 13(2), e202312.


  • Abdul Samad, A. M. (2021). The relationship between styles of abnormal parenting treatment and school bullying among primary school students. Journal of the Faculty of Social Work for Social Studies and Research, 23(1), 15-70.
  • Abu-Sare’e, S. H. 2019. Social networking sites and their social repercussions and the environment on adolescents [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Ain Shams University.
  • Al Sayed, S. A., & Al-Beheiry, M. R. (2020). Using Facebook and its relationship with the psychological resilience of a sample of orphaned teenagers. Journal of Southwest Jiaotong University, 55(6), 1-18.
  • Al Shamsi, A. A. (2019). Effectiveness of cyber security awareness program for young children: A case study in UAE. International Journal of Information Technology and Language Studies, 3(2), 8-29.
  • Al-Lassameh, A. K. S., & Al Majali, F. A. Q. (2022). The academic and awareness role of Jordanian public universities in cyber security from faculty staff perspective. Annals of the Arts of Ain Shams, 50(3), 82-96.
  • Alobedi, N., Saeed, S. (2021). Cyberspace and its relationship to psychosocial compatibility (Snapchat as a model). Al-Adab Journal [Literature Journal], 1(137), 319-348.
  • Al-Tajer, M., & Ikuesan, R. A. (2022). Cyber security threat awareness framework for high school students in Qatar.
  • Brewer, R., Cale, J., Goldsmith, A., & Holt, T. (2018). Young people, the Internet, and emerging pathways into criminality: A study of Australian adolescents. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 12(1), 115-132.
  • Burton, J., & Lain, C. (2020). Desecuritizing cybersecurity: Towards a societal approach. Journal of Cyber Policy, 5(3), 449-470.
  • CISA. (2020). Avoiding social engineering and phishing attacks. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency.
  • Corron, L. (2018). Social cyber threats facing children and teens in 2018.
  • de Paula Albuquerque, O., Fantinato, M., Kelner, J., & de Albuquerque, A. P. (2020). Privacy in smart toys: Risks and proposed solutions. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 39, 100922
  • DeSmet, A. (2015). Understanding adolescent bystander behavior in cyberbullying and the potential of serious digital games to promote prosocial behavior and other healthy lifestyles. Consulté à l’adresse
  • Durkee, T., Kaess, M., Carli, V., Parzer, P., Wasserman, C., Floderus, B., Apter, A., Balazs, J., Barzilay, S., Bobes, J., Brunner, R., Corcoran, P., Cosman, D., Cotter, P., Despalins, R., Graber, N., Guillemin, F., Haring, C., Kahn, J. P., … Wasserman, D. (2012). Prevalence of pathological internet use among adolescents in Europe: Demographic and social factors. Addiction, 107(12), 2210-2220.
  • El Nadir, A. T. M. (2021). Information society and knowledge gap in the third world–A conceptual approach–. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 5(September 2015-Special Issue), 53-63.
  • El-Sayed Borham, Y., Ahmed, A. I., & Gad, R. M. (2022). Assessment of internet addiction among adolescents in Mansoura City. Mansoura Nursing Journal, 9(1), 124-132.
  • Gilad, A., Pecht, E., & Tishler, A. (2020). Intelligence, cyberspace, and national security. Defence and Peace Economics, 32(1), 18-45.
  • Hamdi, R. (2022). Cybersecurity awareness in Saudi Arabia: A systematic literature review. In Proceedings of the EDULEARN22 (pp. 4805-4815).
  • Hatfield, J. M. (2018). Social engineering in cybersecurity: The evolution of a concept. Computers and Security, 73, 102-113.
  • Irtaimeh, W. S. (2020). Criminal protection of privacy in the Jordanian Cybercrime Law No. 27 of 2015. Asian Social Science, 16(12), 64-79.
  • Khader, M., Karam, M., & Fares, H. (2021). Cybersecurity awareness framework for academia. Information, 12(10), 417.
  • Kumari, A., & Verma, J. (2015). Impact of social networking sites on social interaction–a study of college students. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(2), 55-62.
  • Lee, C. S., & Kim, D. (2022). Pathways to cybersecurity awareness and protection behaviors in South Korea. Journal of Computer Information Systems.
  • Leung, L. (2004). Net-generation attributes and seductive properties of the internet as predictors of online activities and internet addiction. In Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 7(3), 333-348.
  • Liaropoulos, A. (2013). Exercising state sovereignty in cyberspace: An international cyber-order under construction? Journal of Information Warfare, 12(2), 19-26.
  • Livingstone, S., Hasebrink, U., & Görzig, A. (2012). Children, risk and safety on the Internet: Research and policy challenges in comparative perspective. Bristol University Press.
  • Luciana, R. P. (2010). One minute more: Adolescent addiction for virtual world. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 3706-3710.
  • MICT. (2018). National cyber security strategy 2018-2023. Ministry of Information and Communication Technology. 2018
  • Mohammad, T., Mohamed Hussin, N. A., & Husin, M. H. (2022). Online safety awareness and human factors: An application of the theory of human ecology. Technology in Society, 68, 101823.
  • Prasad, A., Ruiz, R., & Stablein, T. (2019). Understanding parents’ concerns with smart device usage in the home. In A. Moallem (Ed.), HCI for cybersecurity, privacy and trust (pp. 176-190). Springer.
  • Quayyum, F., Cruzes, D. S., & Jaccheri, L. (2021). Cybersecurity awareness for children: A systematic literature review. In International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 30, 100343.
  • Salgado, P. G., Rial Boubeta, A., Braña Tobío, T., Varela Mallou, J., Barreiro Couto, C., Salgado, P. G., Boubeta, A. R., Tobío, T. B., Mallou, J. V:, Couto, C. B., Gámez-Guadix, M., Orue, I., & Calvete, E. (2014). Evaluation and early detection of problematic internet use in adolescents. Psicothema [Psychothema], 26(1), 21-26.
  • Staksrud, E., Ólafsson, K., & Livingstone, S. (2013). Does the use of social networking sites increase children’s risk of harm? Computers in Human Behavior, 29(1), 40-50.
  • Subrahmanyam, K., Greenfield, P., Kraut, R., & Gross, E. (2001). The impact of computer use on children’s and adolescents’ development. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 22(1), 7-30.
  • Tariq, F. (2015). The impact of cyber on the personality of the adolescent in light of the quality of life and major personality factors (a comparative study between a random area and a planned one). Journal of the Faculty of Education in Humanities and Literary Sciences, 27(1), 141-174.
  • Waldo, A. D. (2014). Correlates of internet addiction among adolescents. Psychology, 5(18), 1999-2008.
  • Walsh, K., Pink, E., Ayling, N., Sondergeld, A., Dallaston, E., Tournas, P., Serry, E., Trotter, S., Spanos, T., & Rogic, N. (2022). Best practice framework for online safety education: Results from a rapid review of the international literature, expert review, and stakeholder consultation. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 33, 100474.
  • Walther, J. B. (1996). Computer-mediated communication: Impersonal, interpersonal, and hyper personal interaction. Communication Research, 23(1), 3-43.
  • Wasiński, A., & Tomczyk, Ł. (2015). Factors reducing the risk of internet addiction in young people in their home environment. Children and Youth Services Review, 57, 68-74.