Minorities in Pakistan: Role of Pakistani Private TV Channels in Highlighting Minorities’ Rights

Amber Mubeen 1 *, Rabia Qusien 2
More Detail
1 University of the Punjab, Pakistan
2 University of Lahore, Pakistan
* Corresponding Author
Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp. 96-113. https://doi.org/10.29333/ojcmt/2593
OPEN ACCESS   1582 Views   873 Downloads   Published online: 26 Apr 2017
Download Full Text (PDF)


Religious minorities in Pakistan “are believed to be much more than the estimated figures of 5 percent of Pakistan's 160 million population”. Minorities were enjoying good relationship with Muslim community but since few years some violent incidents resulting in destruction of the life and property were reported by media. Being a forth state of a society, media is expected to present all marginalized groups within it and to give an account of all incidents in a responsible way. This study finds out the role of Pakistani TV Channels to highlight minorities’ rights in Pakistan and to create harmony among all groups residing in the country. With mix methodology of qualitative and quantitative, data (N=456) was taken from students of five different universities of Lahore to know their perspective about the role of the Private Television channels to highlight minorities’ rights and their contribution in presenting the stories related to minorities. Data analysis shows that respondents find private TV channels quite vocal to give them awareness about minority rights and to share the incidents in a neutral way but respondents do not find private TV channels active in creating harmony among different minorities ‘groups.


Mubeen, A., & Qusien, R. (2017). Minorities in Pakistan: Role of Pakistani Private TV Channels in Highlighting Minorities’ Rights. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 7(2), 96-113. https://doi.org/10.29333/ojcmt/2593


  • Protection of Minority Rights (2005). Retrieved 23 October, 2015, from http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/treatment/minority.htm
  • Christian colony attack in violation of Islam: Allama Tahir Ashrafi (2013). Retrieved 2nd December, 2015, from http://tribune.com.pk/story/518652/christian-colony-attack-inviolation-of-islam-allama-tahir-ashrafi/
  • Christian couple killed for 'desecrating Holy Quran' near Lahore: police (2014, 4th November). The Express Tribune
  • Christian colony attacked in Lahore (2015, May 26). Daily Times, Demographic Indicators – 1998
  • Census (2015). Retrieved 20th December, 2015, from http://www.pbs.gov.pk/content/demographic-indicators-1998-census
  • AFP (2014, 28th March). Blasphemy: Christian sentenced to death in Joseph Colony case. Dawn
  • AFP (2015). Police arrest Christian labourer for blasphemy Retrieved 1st December, 2015, from http://tribune.com.pk/story/951230/pakistan-police-arrest-christian-labourer-forblasphemy/
  • Ali, Z. (2013). Role of electronic media in changing value system in Pakistan. The International Asian Research Journal, 1(01), 59-65.
  • Anduiza Perea, E., Jorba, L., & Gallego Dobón, A. (2012). Internet use and the political knowledge gap in Spain. Paper presented at the Revisit international sociology.
  • Chandler, D. (1995). Cultivation Theory Retrieved 2nd October, 2015, from http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/short/cultiv.html
  • Commissioner, U. N. H. r. o. o. t. h. (2010). Minority Rights: International Standards and Guidance for Implementation. New York. Dictionary, O. Minority Retrieved 3rd November, 2015, from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/minority
  • Dilawr S., S. A., Saleem M., & Ishfaq H. (2014). Searching for Security: The Rising Marginalization of Religious Communities in Pakistan: Minority Rights Group International.
  • Emenyeonu, B. (1995). Media uses and gratifications: A review. Africa Media Review, 9(3), 90-113.
  • Gerbner, G., & Signorielli, N. (1979). Women and Minorities in Television Drama, 1969- 1978.
  • Hagendoorn, A., & Nekuee, S. (1999). Education and racism: A cross national inventory of positive effects of education on ethnic tolerance: Ashgate Pub Limited.
  • Henrard, K. (2002). Minority protection in post-apartheid South Africa: Human rights, minority rights, and self-determination: Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • Imran Gabol, N. H., Waseem Riaz, Ali Akbar, Abbas Haider (2015, 17th March). 15 killed in Taliban attack on Lahore churches. Dawn
  • Jalil, X. (16 March 2015). Attacks on Christians in Punjab in over a decade. Dawn,
  • Katz, E., Haas, H., & Gurevitch, M. (1973). On the use of the mass media for important things. American sociological review, 164-181.
  • Khan, S. B. (2005). Problems of Women Journalists in Pakistan. Media Asia-Singapore, 35(1), 25.
  • Korgaonkar, P. K., & Wolin, L. D. (1999). A multivariate analysis of web usage. Journal of advertising research, 39, 53-68.
  • Kozar, A. (2005). The media and cultural rights of ethnic minorities by aida kozar. Paper presented at the Eighth International Seminar Democracy and Human Rights in Multiethnic Societies.
  • Kymlicka, W. (2002). Multiculturalism and minority rights: West and East. JEMIE, i.
  • Mastro, D. E., & Robinson, A. L. (2000). Cops and crooks: Images of minorities on primetime television. Journal of Criminal Justice, 28(5), 385-396.
  • Middleton, M. (2009). Social Responsibility in the media. Center for International Media Ethics, Oxford University PCMlP. Online. http://www. cimethics. org/en/docs/SR_media. pdf (Accessed August 21, 2010).
  • Middleton, M. (2009). Social Responsibility in the media. Center for International Media Ethics, Oxford University PCMlP. Online. http://www. cimethics. org/en/docs/SR_media. pdf (Accessed August 21, 2010).
  • Munir-ul-Anjum, T., Shahnaz (2012). The Role of Christians in the Freedom Movement of Pakistan: An Appraisal. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS), 32(2), 437-443.
  • News, T. (2015). Seven Muslims among Lahore terror victims Retrieved 2nd December, 2015, from http://www.thenews.com.pk/print/11460-seven-muslims-among-lahoreterror-victims
  • Ravi, B. (2012). Media and Social Responsibility: A Critical Perspective with Special Reference to Television. Academic research international.
  • Roberts, D. F., & Foehr, U. G. (2008). Trends in media use. The future of children, 18(1), 11- 37.
  • Sadruddin, M. M. (2012). Study on the Role of Media, NGOs and Civil Society in Promoting Pluralism in Pakistan. Dialogue, 7(2), 161.
  • Saleem, S. (2013). Two groups clash in Gujranwala’s Christian colony Retrieved 2nd December, 2015, from http://tribune.com.pk/story/530583/christians-muslims-clashin-gujranwala/
  • Schaefer, R. T. (2004). Racial and ethnic groups (Vol. 1): Prentice Hall.
  • Shahab, Z. (2010). Muslim-Christian Relations in Pakistan.
  • Spring, E. R. (2002). Uses & Gratifications/ Dependency Theory Retrieved 1st December, 2015, from http://zimmer.csufresno.edu/~johnca/spch100/7-4-uses.htm
  • Stroman, C. A., Merritt, B. D., & Matabane, P. W. (1989). Twenty years after kernen: The portrayal of African Americans on prime―time television. Howard Journal of Communications, 2(1), 44-56.
  • Verkuyten, M. (2006). Multicultural recognition and ethnic minority rights: A social identity perspective. European review of social psychology, 17(1), 148-184.
  • Ward, S. J. (2009). Journalism ethics. The handbook of journalism studies, 295-309.
  • Watson, I. (1996). The irish language and television: National identity, preservation, restoration and minority rights. British Journal of Sociology, 255-274.
  • Zahid, L. (2015). Youhanabad Incident Retrieved 1st December 2015, from http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2015/03/21/features/youhanabad-incident/