Media dependency, uses and gratifications, and knowledge gap in online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: The case of Afghanistan and Turkey

Rohullah Mohammad 1, Yasmin Aldamen 1 *
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1 New Media and Communication Department, School of Communication, Ibn Haldun University, Istanbul 34480, TURKEY
* Corresponding Author
Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, Volume 13, Issue 3, Article No: e202324.
OPEN ACCESS   1150 Views   1057 Downloads   Published online: 21 Mar 2023
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This study aims to address how dependency on media for learning purposes increased dramatically during COVID-19 by assessing the effects of online learning on students’ academic performance during the COVID-19 pandemic with a specific focus on Afghanistan and Turkey. Through the theoretical framework of the uses and gratifications theory, the study tries to explain the uses of devices to use the internet for learning purposes to gratify the needs of students during the pandemic. Furthermore, the study tries to address how the knowledge gap between students of different countries affects students’ academic performance during online learning and their uses and gratifications of media during COVID-19.
The study followed the quantitative research method where primary data was collected from 400 participants (200 Afghan and 200 Turkish students) through a close-ended survey questionnaire. The study found that Turkish students were more satisfied with the online learning process during the COVID-19 pandemic than Afghan students. Furthermore, there is a considerable difference in attitude, perceived impact, and satisfaction with online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic among Afghan and Turkish students. Due to the knowledge gap, Turkish students had a better attitude toward online learning during the pandemic as compared to Afghan students. The study also found that Turkish students perceived a more significant impact of online learning on their academic performance during the COVID-19 pandemic in contrast to Afghan students. Limited access to different media and technological resources for Afghan students shaped their learning outcomes by lowering their academic performance.


Mohammad, R., & Aldamen, Y. (2023). Media dependency, uses and gratifications, and knowledge gap in online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: The case of Afghanistan and Turkey. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 13(3), e202324.


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