Investigating the Determinants of Consumers’ Attitude towards Social Media Marketing: Moderating Role of Gender

Madeeha Irshad 1 * , Muhammad Shakil Ahmad 2 *
More Detail
1 Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, PAKISTAN
2 Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamad, Attock campus, Attock, 43600, PAKISTAN
* Corresponding Author
Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, Volume 9, Issue 4, Article No: e201920.
OPEN ACCESS   4168 Views   2546 Downloads   Published online: 28 Jul 2019
Download Full Text (PDF)


Social media marketing is a trending topic in marketing research. However the research on its effectiveness is still at embryonic stage. Marketers are faced with challenging issues of identifying consumers’ motivations that affect subsequent trust on social media retailers and attitudes of consumers with respect to social media marketing. The aim of the present research is to address these gaps and identify the impact of consumers’ socialization motivation on consumers’ attitude towards social media marketing and trust on social media retailers. In addition to this, the study identifies the moderating role of gender in affecting the relationship between socialization motivation, trust and attitude towards social media marketing. Data were collected from three cities of Pakistan. Structural equation modelling through AMOS was used to test the hypotheses. The results revealed that socialization motivation has a positive impact on consumer’ trust on social media retailers. Moreover, socialization motivation has a positive impact on consumers’ attitude towards social media marketing. Trust on social media retailers has a significant positive impact on consumers’ attitude towards social media marketing. Gender was found as an important moderating variable in affecting the path estimates among different variables of the research model. The study has important theoretical and managerial implications and concludes with few limitations and future research directions.


Irshad, M., & Ahmad, M. S. (2019). Investigating the Determinants of Consumers’ Attitude towards Social Media Marketing: Moderating Role of Gender. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 9(4), e201920.


  • Ahmad, S., Mustafa, M., & AhsanUllah. (2016). Association of demographics, motives and intensity of using social networking sites with the formation of bonding and bridging social capital in Pakistan. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 107–114.
  • Akar, E., & Topcu, B. (2011). An examination of the factors influencing consumers’ attitudes toward social media marketing. Journal of Internet Commerce, 10(1), 35–67.
  • Aladwani, A. M. (2018). A quality-facilitated socialization model of social commerce decisions. International Journal of Information Management, 40(October 2017), 1–7.
  • Alalwan, A. A. (2018). Investigating the impact of social media advertising features on customer purchase intention. International Journal of Information Management, 42(April), 65–77.
  • Alalwan, A. A., Rana, N. P., Dwivedi, Y. K., & Algharabat, R. (2017). Social media in marketing: A review and analysis of the existing literature. Telematics and Informatics, 34(7), 1177–1190.
  • Al-Debei, M. M., Akroush, M. N., & Ashouri, M. I. (2015). Consumer attitudes towards online shopping: The effects of trust, perceived benefits, and perceived web quality. Internet Research, 25(5), 707–733.
  • Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411–423.
  • Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411–423.
  • Anderson, K. C., Knight, D. K., Pookulangara, S., & Josiam, B. (2014). Influence of hedonic and utilitarian motivations on retailer loyalty and purchase intention: A facebook perspective. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 21, 773–779.
  • Ashnai, B., Henneberg, S. C., Naudé, P., & Francescucci, A. (2016). Inter-personal and inter-organizational trust in business relationships: An attitude-behavior-outcome model. Industrial Marketing Management, 52, 128–139.
  • Ashraf, A. R., Thongpapanl, N. (Tek), & Auh, S. (2014). The application of the technology acceptance model under different cultural contexts: The case of online shopping adoption. Journal of International Marketing, 22(3), 68–93.
  • Aziz, S., Md Husin, M., Hussin, N., & Afaq, Z. (2019). Factors that influence individuals’ intentions to purchase family takaful mediating role of perceived trust. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 31(1), 81–104.
  • Ball, J. G., Manika, D., & Stout, P. (2016). Causes and consequences of trust in direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising. International Journal of Advertising, 35(2), 216–247.
  • Chi, H. (2011). Interactive digital advertising vs. virtual brand community: Exploratory study of user motivation and social media marketing responses in taiwan. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 12(1), 44–61.
  • Chiang, H.-S., & Hsiao, K.-L. (2015). YouTube stickiness: The needs, personal, and environmental perspective. Internet Research, 25(1), 85–106.
  • Corkindale, D., Ram, J., & Chen, H. (2018). The adoption of firm-hosted online communities: an empirical investigation into the role of service quality and social interactions. Enterprise Information Systems, 12(2), 173–195.
  • Dao, W. V. T., Le, A. N. H., Cheng, J. M. S., & Chen, D. C. (2014). Social media advertising value: The case of transitional economies in Southeast Asia. International Journal of Advertising, 33(2), 37–41.
  • Dijkmans, C., Kerkhof, P., & Beukeboom, C. J. (2015). A stage to engage: Social media use and corporate reputation. Tourism Management, 47, 58–67.
  • Dittmar, H., Long, K., & Meek, R. (2004). Buying on the internet: Gender dfferences in on-line and conventional buying motivations. Sex Roles, 50(5/6), 423–444.
  • Dolan, R., Conduit, J., Fahy, J., & Goodman, S. (2016). Social media engagement behaviour: A uses and gratifications perspective. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 24(3), 261–277.
  • eMarketer. (2016). Marketing in Asia-Pacific: Millennials in Vietnam are social, skeptical and seeking role models. Retrieved from
  • Erkan, I., & Evans, C. (2018). Social media or shopping websites? The influence of eWOM on consumers’ online purchase intentions. Journal of Marketing Communications, 24(6), 617–632.
  • Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurements error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39–50.
  • Gentina, E., Shrum, L. J., Lowrey, T. M., Vitell, S. J., & Rose, G. M. (2018). An integrative model of the influence of parental and peer support on consumer ethical beliefs: The mediating role of self-esteem, power, and materialism. Journal of Business Ethics, 150(4), 1173–1186.
  • Godey, B., Manthiou, A., Pederzoli, D., Rokka, J., Aiello, G., Donvito, R., & Singh, R. (2016). Social media marketing efforts of luxury brands: Influence on brand equity and consumer behavior. Journal of Business Research, 69(12), 5833–5841.
  • GWI. (2019a). Social commerce in 2019. Retrieved from
  • GWI. (2019b). Social media by generation.
  • Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • Hawk, S. T., van den Eijnden, R. J. J. M., van Lissa, C. J., & ter Bogt, T. F. M. (2019). Narcissistic adolescents’ attention-seeking following social rejection: Links with social media disclosure, problematic social media use, and smartphone stress. Computers in Human Behavior, 92, 65–75.
  • Hilverda, F., Kuttschreuter, M., & Giebels, E. (2017). Social media mediated interaction with peers, experts and anonymous authors: Conversation partner and message framing effects on risk perception and sense-making of organic food. Food Quality and Preference, 56, 107–118.
  • Hossain, M. A. (2019). Effects of uses and gratifications on social media use. PSU Research Review, 3(1), 16–28.
  • Irshad, M. (2018). Impact of consumers’ motivations and trust on attitudes towards social media marketing and purchase intentions. In 2018 Summer AMA Conference Proceeedings (p. 523).
  • Izquierdo-Yusta, A., Olarte-Pascual, C., & Reinares-Lara, E. (2015). Attitudes toward mobile advertising among users versus non-users of the mobile Internet. Telematics and Informatics, 32(2), 355–366.
  • Jabeur, N., Nait-Sidi-Moh, A., & Zeadally, S. (2017). Crowd social media computing: Applying crowd computing techniques to social media. Applied Soft Computing Journal, 66, 495–505.
  • Jung, J., Shim, S. W., & Jin, H. S. (2015). Factors affecting attitudes and behavioural intention towards social networking advertising : a case of Facebook users in South Korea. International Journal of Advertising, 0487(March), 37–41.
  • Kaushik, A. K., Agrawal, A. K., & Rahman, Z. (2015). Tourist behaviour towards self-service hotel technology adoption: Trust and subjective norm as key antecedents. Tourism Management Perspectives, 16, 278–289.
  • Kim, H. Y., & Chung, J.-E. (2011). Consumer purchase intention for organic personal care products. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 28(1), 40–47.
  • Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (4th ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Knoll, J. (2015). Advertising in social media: a review of empirical evidence. International Journal of Advertising, 35(2), 266–300.
  • Kumar, A., & Kashyap, A. K. (2018). Leveraging utilitarian perspective of online shopping to motivate online shoppers. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 46(3), 247–263.
  • Lin, J., Wang, B., Wang, N., & Lu, Y. (2014). Understanding the evolution of consumer trust in mobile commerce: A longitudinal study. Information Technology and Management, 15(1), 37–49.
  • Liu, J., North, M., & Li, C. (2017). Relationship building through reputation and tribalism on company Facebook pages: A uses and gratifications approach. Internet Research, 27(5), 1149–1169.
  • Luna-Nevarez, C., & Torres, I. M. (2015). Consumer attitudes toward social network advertising. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 36(1), 1–19.
  • Melancon, J. P., & Dalakas, V. (2018). Consumer social voice in the age of social media: Segmentation profiles and relationship marketing strategies. Business Horizons, 61(1), 157–167.
  • Michopoulou, E., & Moisa, D. G. (2019). Hotel social media metrics: The ROI dilemma. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 76, 308–315.
  • Mishra, A., Maheswarappa, S. S., Maity, M., & Samu, S. (2018). Adolescent’s eWOM intentions: An investigation into the roles of peers, the Internet and gender. Journal of Business Research, 86(October 2016), 394–405.
  • Mishra, A. S. (2019). Antecedents of consumers’ engagement with brand-related content on social media. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 37(4), 386–400.
  • Mosquera, A., Olarte-Pascual, C., Ayensa, E. J., & Murillo, Y. S. (2018). The role of technology in an omnichannel physical store Assessing the moderating effect of gender. Spanish Journal of Marketing - ESIC, 22(1), 63–82.
  • Mowbray, J., Hall, H., Raeside, R., & Robertson, P. (2017). The role of networking and social media tools during job search: An information behaviour perspective. Information Research, 22(1), 1–18. Retrieved from
  • MSI. (2014). Research priorities 2014-2016. Marketing Science Institute.
  • Muk, A., & Chung, C. (2015). Applying the technology acceptance model in a two-country study of SMS advertising. Journal of Business Research, 68(1), 1–6.
  • Muk, A., Chung, C., & Kim, J. (2014). Korean consumer perspectives on social media advertising and intention to join brand pages. Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science, 24(4), 384–394.
  • Muralidharan, S., & Men, L. R. (2015). How peer communication and engagement motivations influence social media shopping behavior: Evidence from China and the United States. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18(10), 595–601.
  • Nadeem, W., Andreini, D., Salo, J., & Laukkanen, T. (2015). Engaging consumers online through websites and social media : A gender study of Italian Generation Y clothing consumers. International Journal of Information Management, 35(4), 432–442.
  • Niu, H. J. (2013). Cyber peers’ influence for adolescent consumer in decision-making styles and online purchasing behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43, 1228–1237.
  • Nwagwu, W. E., & Famiyesin, B. (2016). Acceptance of mobile advertising by consumers in public service institutions in Lagos, Nigeria. Electronic Library, 34, 265–288.
  • Odoom, R., Anning-Dorson, T., & Acheampong, G. (2017). Antecedents of social media usage and performance benefits in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 30(3), 383–399.
  • Pantano, E., Priporas, C. V., & Migliano, G. (2019). Reshaping traditional marketing mix to include social media participation: Evidence from Italian firms. European Business Review.
  • Parsons, A. L., & Lepkowska-White, E. (2018). Social media marketing management: A conceptual framework. Journal of Internet Commerce, 17(2), 81–95.
  • PAS. (2015). Digital, social & mobile in APAC in 2015. Retrieved from
  • Paul, J., Modi, A., & Patel, J. (2016). Predicting green product consumption using theory of planned behavior and reasoned action. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 29, 123–134.
  • PBS. (2013). Pakistan social and living standards measurement. Retrieved from
  • Pirson, M., Martin, K., & Parmar, B. (2017). Formation of stakeholder trust in business and the role of personal values. Journal of Business Ethics, 145(1), 1–20.
  • Pletikosa Cvijikj, I., & Michahelles, F. (2013). Online engagement factors on Facebook brand pages. Social Network Analysis and Mining, 3(4), 843–861.
  • Plume, C. J., & Slade, E. L. (2018). Sharing of sponsored advertisements on social media : A uses and gratifications perspective. Information Systems Frontiers, 20, 471–483.
  • Pöyry, E., Parvinen, P., & Malmivaara, T. (2013). Can we get from liking to buying? Behavioral differences in hedonic and utilitarian Facebook usage. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 12, 224–235.
  • Rahman, M. A., Islam, M. A., Esha, B. H., Sultana, N., & Chakravorty, S. (2018). Consumer buying behavior towards online shopping: An empirical study on Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Cogent Business and Management, 5(1), 1–22.
  • Shankar, V., & Batra, R. (2009). The growing influence of online marketing communications. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 23(4), 285–287.
  • Shao, Z., Zhang, L., Li, X., & Guo, Y. (2019). Antecedents of trust and continuance intention in mobile payment platforms: The moderating effect of gender. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 33, 100823.
  • Statista. (2019a). Facebook- Statistics & Facts. Retrieved from
  • Statista. (2019b). Number of monthly active Instagram users from January 2013 to June 2018 (in millions). Retrieved from
  • Statista. (2019c). Number of monthly active Twitter users worldwide from 1st quarter 2010 to 1st quarter 2019 (in millions). Retrieved from
  • Statista. (2019d). Pinterest - Statistics & Facts. Retrieved from
  • Statista. (2019e). YouTube - Statistics & Facts. Retrieved from
  • Taylor, D. G., Lewin, J. E., & Strutton, D. (2011). Friends , fans , and followers : Do ads work on social Nnetworks ? How gender and age shape receptivity. Journal of Advertising Research, 51(1), 258–276.
  • Thongsri, N., Shen, L., Bao, Y., & Alharbi, I. M. (2018). Integrating UTAUT and UGT to explain behavioural intention to use M-learning: A developing country’s perspective. Journal of Systems and Information Technology, 20(3), 278–297.
  • Valos, M. J., Habibi, F. H., Casidy, R., Driesener, C. B., & Maplestone, V. L. (2016). Exploring the integration of social media within integrated marketing communication frameworks Perspectives of services marketers. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 34(1), 19–40.
  • Van Der Heijden, H., Verhagen, T., & Creemers, M. (2003). Understanding online purchase intentions: contributions from technology and trust perspectives. European Journal of Information Systems, 12(1), 41–48.
  • Vo, K., Nguyen, T., Pham, D., Nguyen, M., Truong, M., Nguyen, D., & Quan, T. (2019). Handling negative mentions on social media channels using deep learning. Journal of Information and Telecommunication, 0(0), 1–23.
  • Wang, X., Yu, C., & Wei, Y. (2012). Social media peer communication and impacts on purchase intentions: A consumer socialization framework. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 26(4), 198–208.
  • Wang, Y., Min, Q., & Han, S. (2016). Understanding the effects of trust and risk on individual behavior toward social media platforms: A meta-analysis of the empirical evidence. Computers in Human Behavior, 56, 34–44.
  • Xie, L., & Ritchie, B. W. (2019). The motivation, constraint, behavior relationship: A holistic approach for understanding international student leisure travelers. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 25(1), 111–129.
  • Xu-Priour, D. L., Truong, Y., & Klink, R. R. (2014). The effects of collectivism and polychronic time orientation on online social interaction and shopping behavior: A comparative study between China and France. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 88, 265–275.
  • Zarouali, B., Poels, K., Walrave, M., & Ponnet, K. (2018). “You talking to me?” The influence of peer communication on adolescents’ persuasion knowledge and attitude towards social advertisements. Behaviour and Information Technology, 37(5), 502–516.
  • Zhang, J., & Mao, E. (2016). From online motivations to ad clicks and to behavioral intentions: An empirical study of consumer response to social media advertising. Psychology & Marketing, 33(3), 155–164.
  • Zhang, M., Guob, L., Huc, M., & Liu, W. (2016). Influence of customer engagement with company social networks on stickiness: Mediating effect of customer value creation. International Journal of Information Management, 37(3), 229–240.
  • Zhu, Y., & Chen, H. (2015). Social media and human need satisfaction : Implications for social media marketing. Business Horizons, 58, 335–345.
  • Zong, W., Yang, J., & Bao, Z. (2019). Social network fatigue affecting continuance intention of social networking services: The case of WeChat users in China’s universities. Data Technologies and Applications, 53(1), 123–139.