Effects of Mass Media Framing of Protest Movements: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Mass Media Studies

Geremew Chala Teresa 1 *
More Detail
1 Department of Afan Oromo, Literature and Communication, Haramaya University, ETHIOPIA
* Corresponding Author
Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, Volume 12, Issue 2, Article No: e202208. https://doi.org/10.30935/ojcmt/11538
OPEN ACCESS   54 Views   26 Downloads   Published online: 13 Jan 2022
Download Full Text (PDF)


This study aimed to estimate an overall mean effect size of mass media framing of protest movements to provide an up-to-date overview of protest framing researches through a systematic review. Several scholars who have been engaged in framing researches were less consistent and lacked repeated stimuli in their findings, which inspired this study. This study used a rigorous systematic review to analyze protest movements of framing researches that addressed the effects of media framing of protest movements. Data were identified from two major databases and indexing services that produced 29 relevant studies included for analysis. The data were extracted with a structured format prepared in Microsoft Excel and copied to OpenMeta[analyst] software for analysis. Then, the pooled estimation of the outcomes was performed by the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model at 95% confidence interval and produced an overall random weighted mean effect size of Pearson’s product-moment correlation (r)=0.352.


Teresa, G. C. (2022). Effects of Mass Media Framing of Protest Movements: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Mass Media Studies. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 12(2), e202208. https://doi.org/10.30935/ojcmt/11538


  • Anker E. A, Reinhart, M. A., & Feeley, H. T. (2010). Meta-analysis of meta-analyses in communication: Comparing fixed effects and random effects analysis models. Communication Quarterly, 58(3), 257-278. https://doi.org/10.1080/01463373.2010.503154
  • Arpan, L. M., Baker, K., Lee, Y., Jung, T., Lorusso, L., & Smith, J. (2006). News coverage of social protests and the effects of photographs and prior attitudes. Mass Communication & Society, 9(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327825mcs0901_1
  • Banas, J. A., & Rains, S. A. (2010). A meta-analysis of research on inoculation theory. Communication Monographs, 77(3), 281-311. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637751003758193
  • Baylor, T. (1996). Media framing of movement protest: The case of American Indian protest. The Social Science Journal, 33(3), 241-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0362-3319(96)90021-X
  • Bennett, W. L., & Segerberg, A. (2015). Communication in movements. In D. Della Porta, & M. Diani (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of social movements, 367-382. Oxford University Press.
  • Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P. T., & Rothstein, H. R. (2009). Introduction to meta-analysis. John Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470743386
  • Boulianne, S. (2015). Social media use and participation: A meta-analysis of current research. Information, Communication & Society, 18, 524-538. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2015.1008542
  • Boykoff, J. (2006). Framing dissent: Mass-media coverage of the global justice movement. New Political Science, 28(2), 201-228. https://doi.org/10.1080/07393140600679967
  • Boyle, M. P., McLeod, D. M., & Armstrong, C. L. (2012). Adherence to the protest paradigm: The influence of protest goals and tactics on news coverage in U.S. and international newspapers. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 17(2), 127-144. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161211433837
  • Brasted, M. (2005). Framing protest: The Chicago Tribune and the New York Times during the 1968 Democratic Convention. Atlantic Journal of Communication, 13(1), 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15456889ajc1301_1
  • Buturoiu, D. R., & Corbu, N. (2015). Moderators of framing effects on political attitudes: Is source credibility worth investigating? Central European Political Studies Review, 17, 155-177. https://doi.org/10.5817/CEPSR.2015.2.155
  • Card, N. (2012). Applied meta-analysis for social science research. Guilford Press.
  • Carragee, K., & Roefs, W. (2004). The neglect of power in recent framing research. Journal of Communication, 54(2), 214-233. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2004.tb02625.x
  • Chong, D., & Druckman, J.N. (2007). A theory of framing and opinion formation in competitive elite environments. Journal of Communication, 57(1), 99-118. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2006.00331.x
  • Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155-159. https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-2909.112.1.155
  • Cooper, A. H. (2002). Media framing and social movement mobilization: German peace protest against INF missiles, the Gulf War, and NATO peace enforcement in Bosnia. European Journal of Political Research, 41, 37-80. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6765.00003
  • Cooper, H., Hedges, L. V., & Valentine, J. C. (2019). The handbook of research synthesis and meta-analysis. SAGE. https://doi.org/10.7758/9781610448864
  • D’Angelo, P. (2002). News framing as a multiparadigmatic research program: A response to Entman. Journal of Communication, 52, 870-888. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2002.tb02578.x
  • D’Angelo, P. (2017). Framing: Media frames. In P. Roessler, C. A. Hoffner, & L. van Zoonen (Eds.), The international encyclopedia of media effects (pp. 1-10). Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118783764.wbieme0048
  • Entman, R. M. (1993). Framing: Toward a clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43, 51-58. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1993.tb01304.x
  • Gitlin, T. (1980). The whole world is watching: Mass media and the making and unmaking of the newleft. University of California Press.
  • Goffman, E. (1974). Frame analysis. Northeastern University Press.
  • Goh, D., & Pang, N. (2016). Protesting the Singapore government: The role of collective action frames in social media mobilization. Telematics and Informatics, 33(2), 525-533. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2015.07.008
  • Hari, S. I. (2014). The evolution of social protest in Nigeria: The role of social media in the “# OccupyNigeria” protest. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 3(9), 33-39.
  • Hedges, L. V., & Vevea, J. L. (1998). Fixed-and random-effects models in meta-analysis. Psychological Methods, 3(4), 486-504. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.3.4.486
  • Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1990). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings. SAGE.
  • Kahneman, D., &Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, 47, 263-291. https://doi.org/10.2307/1914185
  • Kaun, A. (2017). ‘Our time to act has come’: Desynchronization, social media time and protest movements. Media, Culture & Society, 39(4), 469-486. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443716646178
  • Ketelaars, P. (2017). Tracing protest motives: The link between newspaper coverage, movement messages, and demonstrators’ reasons to protest. Sociological Forum, 32(3), 480-500. https://doi.org/10.1111/socf.12345
  • Kilgo, D. K., & Harlow, S. (2019). Protests, media coverage, and a hierarchy of social struggle. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 24(4), 508-530. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161219853517
  • Lee, S. (2018). The role of social media in protest participation: The case of candlelight vigils in South Korea. International Journal of Communication, 12, 18.
  • Leopold, J., & Bell, M. P. (2017). News media and the racialization of protest: An analysis of Black lives matter articles. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal. 36(8), 720-735. https://doi.org/10.1108/EDI-01-2017-0010
  • Levin, I. P., & Gaeth, G. J. (1988). How consumers are affected by the framing of attribute information before and after consuming the product. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(3), 374-378. https://doi.org/10.1086/209174
  • Levin, P. I., Schneider L. S., & J. Gaeth, J. G. (1998). All frames are not created equal: A typology and critical analysis of framing effects. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 76(2), 49-188. https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1998.2804
  • Liberati, A., Altman, D. G., Tetzlaff, J., Mulrow, C., Gøtzsche, P. C., Ioannidis, J. P.A., Clarke, M., Devereaux, P.J., Kleijnen, J., & Moheret, D. (2009). The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: Explanation and elaboration. BMJ, 339. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b2700
  • Lipsey, M. W. (2003). Those confounded moderators in meta-analysis: Good, bad, and ugly. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 587, 69-81. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716202250791
  • Lipsey, M., & Wilson, D. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. SAGE.
  • Luo, Y., Burley H., Moe, A., & Sui, M. (2019). A meta-analysis of news media’s public agenda-setting effects, 1972-2015. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 96(1), 150-172. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077699018804500
  • Mac Sheoin, T. (2013). Framing the movement, framing the protests: Mass media coverage of the anti-globalization movement. Interface, 5(1), 272-365.
  • McCombs, M. E., & Shaw, D. L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36, 176-187. https://doi.org/10.1086/267990
  • McLeod, D. M. (2007). News coverage and social protest: How the media's protect paradigm exacerbates social conflict. Journal of Dispute. Resolution, 2007, 185-194. https://scholarship.law.missouri.edu/jdr/vol2007/iss1/12
  • McLeod, D. M., & Detenber, B. H. (1999). Framing effects of television news coverage of social protest. Journal of Communication, 49(3), 3-23. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1999.tb02802.x
  • McLeod, D. M., & Hertog, J. K. (1992). The manufacture of public opinion by reporters: Informal cues for public perceptions of protest groups. Discourse and Society, 3, 259-275. https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926592003003001
  • McLeod, D. M., & Hertog, J. K. (1999). Social control and the mass media’s role in the regulation of protest groups: The communicative acts perspective. In D. Demers, & K. Viswanath (Eds.), Mass media, social control and social change (pp. 305-330). Iowa State University Press.
  • Rosenthal, R., & DiMatteo, M. R. (2001). Meta-analysis: Recent developments in quantitative methods for literature reviews. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 59-82. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.59
  • Scheufele, B. (2004). Framing-effects approach: A theoretical and methodological critique. Communications, 29, 401-428. https://doi.org/10.1515/comm.2004.29.4.401
  • Shoemaker, P. J. (1982). The perceived legitimacy of deviant political groups: Two experiments on media effects. Communication Research, 9, 249-286. https://doi.org/10.1177/009365082009002004
  • Shoemaker, P. J. (1984). Media treatment of deviant political groups. Journalism Quarterly, 61(1), 66-82. https://doi.org/10.1177/107769908406100109
  • Surzhko-Harned, L., & Zahuranec, A. J. (2017). Framing the revolution: The role of social media in Ukraine’s Euromaidan movement. Nationalities Papers, 45(5), 758-779. https://doi.org/10.1080/00905992.2017.1289162
  • Valenzuela, S. (2013). Unpacking the use of social media for protest behavior: The roles of information, opinion expression, and activism. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(7), 920-942. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764213479375
  • Wanta, W., & Wu, Y. C. (1992). Interpersonal communication and the agenda-setting process. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 69, 847-855. https://doi.org/10.1177/107769909206900405
  • Watkins, C. S. (2001). Framing protest: News media frames of the million-man march. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 18(1), 83-101. https://doi.org/10.1080/15295030109367125
  • Wouters R., & Walgrave, S. (2017). Demonstrating power: How protest persuades political representatives. American Sociological Review, 82(2), 361-383. https://doi.org/10.1177/0003122417690325