Bad Romance: Exploring the Factors That Influence Revenge Porn Sharing Amongst Romantic Partners

Joseph M. Sirianni 1, Arun Vishwanath 2 *
More Detail
1 Niagara University, USA
2 University at Buffalo SUNY, USA
* Corresponding Author
Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp. 42-73. https://doi.org/10.29333/ojcmt/2569
OPEN ACCESS   1936 Views   2261 Downloads   Published online: 26 Oct 2016
Download Full Text (PDF)

ABSTRACT

The study of revenge in a romantic context has steadily gained traction in the social sciences. Researchers have been interested in exploring what influences romantic revenge, but most studies have failed to specify the type of romantic revenge individuals carry out and also ignored the impact of technology on the enactment of revenge. The current study addressed these issues using social cognitive theory by examining a specific type of romantic revenge enabled by technology– revenge porn. Revenge porn is the nonconsensual sharing of a romantic partner’s sexual images through the Internet or mobile phones. Although this behavior has been widely covered by the mainstream media, it has been largely ignored by the scientific community. Two provocation conditions (high severity and low severity) were designed to act as a stimulus to elicit responses from participants. Following exposure to one of the provocation stimuli, participants (N = 200) answered questions designed to examine the motivations that were most likely to lead them to participate in disseminating revenge porn. Results reveal that dispositional vengefulness, vicarious experience, and expected outcomes played a role in predicting the likelihood for sharing revenge porn. Implications for future research on revenge porn are discussed.

CITATION

Sirianni, J. M., & Vishwanath, A. (2016). Bad Romance: Exploring the Factors That Influence Revenge Porn Sharing Amongst Romantic Partners. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 6(4), 42-73. https://doi.org/10.29333/ojcmt/2569

REFERENCES

  • Al-Gahtani, S., & Hubona, G. W. (2007). Information technology in saudi arabia: Culture and the acceptance and use of IT. Information & Management, 44, 681-691.
  • Andersson, L. M., & Pearson, C. M. (1999).Tit for tat? The spiraling effect of incivility in the workplace. Academy of management review, 24, 452-471.
  • Aquino, K., & Bradfield, M. (2000). Perceived victimization in the workplace: The role of situational factors and victim characteristics. Organization Science, 11(5), 525-537.
  • Authors. (2012). Sexually explicit user-generated content: Understanding motivations and behaviors using social cognitive theory. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 6(1). doi: 10.5817/CP2012-1-7
  • Authors. (2015). Problematic online pornography use: A media attendance perspective. Journal of Sex Research. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/00224499.2014.980496
  • Bachman, G. F., & Guerrero, L. K. (2006). Relational quality and communicative responses following hurtful events in dating relationships: An expectancy violations analysis. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 23, 943-963.
  • Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Bandura, A. (2004). Social cognitive theory for personal and social change by enabling media. Entertainment-education and social change: History, research, and practice, 75-96.
  • Bandura, A. (2009). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. In J. Bryant, & M. Oliver Media effects: Advances in theory and research (pp. 94-125). New York: Routledge.
  • Barnes, C. D., Brown, R. P., & Osterman, L. L. (2009).Protection, payback, or both? Emotional and motivational mechanisms underlying avoidance by victims of transgressions. Motivation and Emotion, 33, 400-411.
  • Baumeister, R. (1997). Evil. New York: Freeman.
  • Benight, C. C., & Bandura, A. (2004). Social cognitive theory of posttraumatic recovery: The role of perceived self-efficacy. Behaviour research and therapy, 42, 1129-1148.
  • Bhakar, S. S., Bhakar, S., Bhakar, S., & Sharma, G. (2012). The impact of co-branding on customer evaluation of brand extension. Prestige International Journal of Management & IT, 1, 21-53.
  • Bies, R. J., & Tripp, T. M. (1996). Beyond distrust:" Getting even" and the need for revenge. In R. Kramer & T. Tyler et al. (Eds.), Trust in organizations, (pp. 246-260). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Bies, R. J., Tripp, T. M., & Kramer, R. M. (1997). At the breaking point: Cognitive and social dynamics of revenge in organizations. In J. Greenberg & R. Giacalone (Eds.), Antisocial behavior in organizations (pp.18-36). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Boies, S. C. (2002). University students' uses of and reactions to online sexual information and entertainment: Links to online and offline sexual behaviour. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 11, 77.
  • Boon, S. D., Alibhai, A. M., & Deveau, V.L. (2011). Reflections on the costs and benefits of exacting revenge in romantic relationships. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science , 43, 128-137.
  • Boon, S. D., Deveau, V. L., & Alibhai, A. M. (2009). Payback: The parameters of revenge in romantic relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 26, 747-768.
  • Brees, J. R., Mackey, J., & Martinko, M. J. (2013). An attributional perspective of aggression in organizations. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28(3), 252-272.
  • Brose, L. A., Rye, M. S., Lutz-Zois, C., & Ross, S. R. (2005).Forgiveness and personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 35-46.
  • Bull, S. S., McFarlane, M., Lloyd, L., & Rietmeijer, C. (2004). The process of seeking sex partners online and implications for STD/HIV prevention. AIDS care, 16(8), 10121020.
  • Buzzell, T. (2005). Demographic characteristics of persons using pornography in three technological contexts. Sexuality & Culture, 9(1), 28-48.
  • Carmines, E. G., & Zeller, R. A. (1979). Reliability and validity assessment (Vol. 17). Sage publications.
  • Chin, W. (1998). The partial least square approach to structural equation modeling. MIS Quarterly, 22, 7-16.
  • Chin, W., & Newsted, P. R. (1999). Structural equation modeling: Analysis with small samples using partial least squares. In R. H. (Ed.), Statisical Strategies for Small Sample Research (pp. 307-341). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Citron, D. K., & Franks, M. A. (2014, October 13). Criminalizing Revenge Porn. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.law.umaryland.edu/fac_pubs/1420/
  • Cloke, K. (1993). Revenge, forgiveness, and the magic of mediation. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 11, 67-78.
  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Connolly, J., Craig, W., Goldberg, A., & Pepler, D. (2004). Mixed-Gender Groups, Dating, and Romantic Relationships in Early Adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 14, 185-207.
  • Couch, D., & Liamputtong, P. (2008). Online dating and mating: The use of the internet to meet sexual partners. Qualitative Health Research, 268-279.
  • Cyber Civil Rights Initiative (2013). Effects of revenge porn survey. Retrieved from http://www.cybercivilrights.org/end_revenge_porn_infographic
  • Deveau, V. L., & Fouts, G. T. (2005). Revenge in US and Canadian news magazines post 9/11. Canadian Journal of Communication, 30.
  • Diamond, M. (2009). Pornography, public acceptance and sex related crime: A review. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 32, 304-314.
  • Dickerman, C., Christensen, J., & Kerl-McClain, S. B. (2008). Big breasts and bad guys: Depictions of gender and race in video games. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 3, 20-29.
  • Doring, N. M. (2009). The Internet's impact on sexuality: A critical review of 15 years research. Computers in Human Behavior, 5, 1089-1101.
  • Douglas, S. C., & Martinko, M. J. (2001). Exploring the role of individual differences in the prediction of workplace aggression. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 547.
  • Drouin, M., & Landgraff, C. (2012). Texting, sexting, and attachment in college students’ romantic relationships. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 444-449.
  • Errante, A. (2003). Where in the world do children learn 'bloody revenge'?: Cults of terror and counter-terror and their implications for child socialisation. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 1, 131-152.
  • Exline, J. J., Worthington, E. L., Hill, P., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Forgiveness and justice: A research agenda for social and personality psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 7, 337-348.
  • Filipovoc, J. (2013, January 28). Revenge porn is about degrading women sexually and professionally. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/jan/28/revenge-porn-degradeswomen
  • Finkel, E. J., Rusbult, C. E., Kumashiro, M., & Hannon, P. A. (2002). Dealing with betrayal in close relationships: Does commitment promote forgiveness?.Journal of personality and social psychology, 82, 956.
  • Flannagan, D., Marsh, D. L., & Fuhrman, R. (2005).Judgments about the hypothetical behaviors of friends and romantic partners. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22, 797-815.
  • Frijda, N. H. (1994). The lextalionis: On vengeance. Emotions: Essays on emotion theory, 263-289.
  • Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing, 18, 39-50.
  • Fornell, C., & Cha, J. (1994). Partial least squares. In R. B. (Ed.), Advanced Methos of Marketing Research (pp. 52-78). New York: Oxford.
  • Fornell, C., & Bookstein, F. (1982). Two structural equation models: LISREL and pls applied to consumer exit-voice theory. Journal of Marketing Research, 19, 440-452.
  • Franks, M. A. (2013). Criminalizing Revenge Porn: A Quick Guide. Available at SSRN.
  • Gabriel, M. A., & Monaco, G. W. (1994).“Getting even”: Clinical considerations of adaptive and maladaptive vengeance.Clinical social work journal, 22, 165-178.
  • Glomb, T. M., & Liao, H. (2003). Interpersonal aggression in work groups: Social influence, reciprocal, and individual effects. Academy of Management Journal, 46, 486-496.
  • Gunderson, P. R., & Ferrari, J. R. (2008). Forgiveness of sexual cheating in romantic relationships: Effects of discovery method, frequency of offense, and presence of apology. North American Journal of Psychology, 10, 1-14.
  • Grov, C. (2006). Barebacking websites: electronic environments for reducing or inducing HIV risk. AIDS care, 990-997.
  • Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of personality and social psychology, 52, 511.
  • Henseler, J., Dijkstra, T. K., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., Diamantopoulos, A., Straub, D. W., & Calantone, R. J. (2014). Common beliefs and reality about pls comments on Rönkkö and Evermann (2014). Organizational Research Methods, 7, 182-209.
  • Hulland, J. (1999) Use of Partial Least Squares (PLS) in strategic management research: a review of four recent studies. Strategic Management Journal, 20, 195-204.
  • Innala, S. (2007). Pornography on the net: Same attraction, but new options. Sexologies, 16, 112-120.
  • Jayson, S. (2008, December 9). Study shows many teens, young adults share nude images. Retrieved December 10, 2009, from ABC News: http://abcnews.go.com/US/story?id=6433047&page=1
  • Johnson, P. R., & Indvik, J. (2001). Rudeness at work: Impulse over restraint. Public personnel management, 30, 457-465.
  • Jones, S., Johnson-Yale, C., Millermaier, S., & Pérez, F. S. (2009). US college students’ Internet use: Race, gender and digital divides. Journal of ComputerMediated Communication, 14, 244-264.
  • Kane, G. C., Alavi, M., Labianca, G., & Borgatti, S. P. (2014). What’s different about social media networks? A framework and research agenda. Mis Quarterly, 38, 275-304.
  • Kotler, J. A., & Calverf, S. L. (2003). Children's and Adolescents' Exposure to Different Kinds of Media Violence: Recurring Choices and Recurring. Media violence and children: A complete guide for parents and professionals, 22, 171.
  • LaRose, R., & Eastin, M. (2004). A social cognitive theory of Internet uses and gratifications: Toward a new model of media attendance. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 48, 358-376.
  • Leary, M. R., Koch, E. J., & Hechenbleikner, N. R. (2001).Emotional responses to interpersonal rejection. Interpersonal rejection, 145-166.
  • Levin, M., Lillis, J., & Hayes, S. (2012). When is online pornography viewing problematic among college males? Examining the moderating role of experiential avoidance. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 19, 168-180.
  • Liau, A., Millett, G., & Marks, G. (2006). Meta-analytic examination of online sex-seeking and sexual risk behavior among when have sex with men. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 33, 576-584.
  • Linkroum, S. C. (2009). Parents and Peers as Moderators of the Relation between Peer Victimization and the Development of Revenge Goals in Middle School Students (Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Commonwealth University Richmond, Virginia).
  • “Lovers beware: Scorned exes may share intimate data and images online.” (2013, February 4).
  • McAfee. Retrieved from http://www.mcafee.com/us/about/news/2013/q1/20130204-01.aspx
  • Maltby, J., Macaskill, A., & Day, L. (2001). Failure to forgive self and others: A replication and extension of the relationship between forgiveness, personality, social desirability and general health. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 881-885.
  • McCullough, M., Bellah, C., Kilpatrick, S., & Johnson, J. (2001). Vengefulness: Relationships with forgiveness, rumination, well-being, and the big five. Society for Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 601-610.
  • McCullough, M. E., Worthington Jr., E. L., & Rachal, K. C. (1997).Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships. Journal of personality and social psychology, 73, 321.
  • McCullough, M. E., & WitvlietvanOyen, C. (2001).The psychology of forgiveness. In C.R. Snyder (Ed.), Handbook of Positive Psychology (pp. 446-458). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • McDonald, K. L., & Asher, S. R. (2013). College students' revenge goals across friend, romantic partner, and roommate contexts: The role of interpretations and emotions. Social Development, 22, 499-521.
  • McLean Parks, J. (1997). The fourth arm of justice: The art and science of revenge. In R. J. Lewicki, R. J. Bies, & B. H. Sheppard (Eds.), Researchon negotiation in organizations (Vol. 6, pp. 113—144). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Metts, S., & Cupach, W. R. (2007). Responses to relational transgressions: Hurt, anger, and sometimes forgiveness. The dark side of interpersonal communication, 2, 243-274.
  • Miller, D. T. (2001). Disrespect and the experience of injustice. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 527-553.
  • Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2005).Attachment security, compassion, and altruism. Current directions in psychological science, 14, 34-38.
  • Morse, C. R., & Metts, S. (2011). Situational and communicative predictors of forgiveness following a relational transgression. Western Journal of Communication, 75, 239-258.
  • Nathanson, C., Williams, K. M., & Paulhus, D. L. (2004, May). Don’t get mad, get even: Psychopaths’ reactions to interpersonal provocations. In Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Psychological Science, Montreal, Quebec.
  • National Conference of State Legislatures.(2014). State ‘revenge porn’ legislation. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/
  • Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw Hill.
  • Ohbuchi, K. I., Kameda, M., & Agarie, N. (1989). Apology as aggression control: its role in mediating appraisal of and response to harm. Journal of personality and social psychology, 56(2), 219.
  • Ozer, E. M., & Bandura, A. (1990). Mechanisms governing empowerment effects: a self efficacy analysis. Journal of personality and social psychology, 58, 472.
  • Peterson, R. A., & Kim, Y. (2013). On the relationship between coefficient alpha and composite reliability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98, 194-198.
  • Philaretou, A., Mahfouz, A., & Allen, K. (2005). Use of internet pornography and men's well-being. International Journal of Men's Health, 4, 149-169.
  • Rasmussen, K. (2013). Vengeful decisions: The role of perceived effectiveness and costliness of revenge (unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Calgary. Calgary, Alberta.
  • Rasmussen, K. R., & Boon, S. D. (2014). Romantic revenge and the Dark Triad: A model of impellance and inhibition. Personality and Individual Differences, 56, 51-56.
  • Reinartz, W., Haenlein, M., & Henseler, J. (2009).An empirical comparison of the efficacy of covariance-based and variance-based SEM. International Journal of research in Marketing, 26, 332-344.
  • Restubog, S. L. D., Zagenczyk, T. J., Bordia, P., Bordia, S., & Chapman, G. J. (2012). If You Wrong Us, Shall We Not Revenge? Moderating Roles of Self-Control and Perceived Aggressive Work Culture in Predicting Responses to Psychological Contract Breach. Journal of Management.
  • Ringle, C. (2005). Smart PLS. Version Beta 2.0. Hamburg, Germany.
  • Roseman, I. J., Wiest, C., & Swartz, T. S. (1994). Phenomenology, behaviors, and goals differentiate discrete emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 206.
  • Runions, K. C. (2013). Toward a conceptual model of motive and self-control in cyber- aggression: rage, revenge, reward, and recreation. Journal of youth and adolescence, 1-21.
  • Rusbult, C. E., Verette, J., Whitney, G. A., Slovik, L. F., & Lipkus, I. (1991). Accommodation processes in close relationships: Theory and preliminary empirical evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 53.
  • Schumann, K., & Ross, M. (2010).The benefits, costs, and paradox of revenge. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4, 1193-1205.
  • Seabright, M. A., & Schminke, M. (2002). Immoral imagination and revenge in organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 38, 19-31.
  • Seigfried, K., Lovely, R., & Rogers, M. (2008). Self-reported online child pornography behavior: a psychological analysis. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 2, 286-297.
  • Shaver, P., & Mikulincer. (2006). Attachment theory, individual psychodynamics, and relationship functioning. In A. V. (Eds), The Cambridge handbook of personal relationships (pp. 251-271). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Sheppard, K., & Boon, S. D. (2012). Predicting appraisals of romantic revenge: The roles of Honesty–Humility, Agreeableness, and vengefulness.Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 128-132.
  • Skarlicki, D. P., & Folger, R. (1997). Retaliation in the workplace: The roles of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. Journal of applied Psychology, 82, 434.
  • Solomon, R. C. (1990). A passion for justice: Emotions and the origins of the social contract. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  • Stroud, S. R. (2014). The Dark Side of the Online Self: A Pragmatist Critique of the Growing Plague of Revenge Porn. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 29(3), 168-183.
  • Stuckless, N., & Goranson, R. (1992). The Vengeance Scale: Development of a measure of attitudes toward revenge. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality.
  • Tripp, T. M., & Bies, R. J. (1997). What’s good about revenge? In R. J. Lewicki, R. J. Bies & B.H. Sheppard (Eds.), Research on negotiation in organizations, Vol 6 (pp. 145-160). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Twohig, M., Crosby, J., & Cox, J. (2009). Viewing Internet Pornography: For Whom is it Problematic, How, and Why? Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, 16, 253-266.
  • Vishwanath, A., & Goldhaber, G. M. (2003). An examination of the factors contributing to adoption decisions among late-diffused technology products. New Media & Society, 5, 547-572.
  • Walker, D. F., & Gorsuch, R. L. (2002).Forgiveness within the Big Five personality model. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 1127-1137.
  • Williams, K. M., Cooper, B. S., Howell, T. M., Yuille, J. C., &Paulhus, D. L. (2009). Inferring Sexually Deviant Behavior From Corresponding Fantasies The Role of Personality and Pornography Consumption. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36, 198-222.
  • Williamson, I., & Gonzales, M. H. (2007). The subjective experience of forgiveness: Positive construals of the forgiveness experience. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26, 407-446.
  • Yoshimura, S. (2007). Goals and emotional outcomes of revenge activities in interpersonal relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 24, 87-98.
  • Zehnder, S. M., & Calvert, S. L. (2004). Between the hero and the shadow: Developmental differences in adolescents’ perceptions and understanding of mythic themes in film. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 28, 122-137.